If you are considering the development of a web or mobile application for your company, it is important to understand the key tools that developers utilize in such projects. This is because the technology stack employed can significantly impact both the speed of application development and the ability to scale the product in the future. Additionally, it can influence the cost your company incurs for project support and maintenance.

To streamline the process of selecting a suitable technology stack for your web or mobile application in 2022, we have compiled an overview of the most essential tools utilized by popular applications such as Netflix and Airbnb. By referring to this guide, you can save time and effort that would otherwise be spent on searching for the ideal tech stack for your project.

What does a Tech Stack mean?

A Tech Stack refers to the collection of software tools utilized by developers to construct an application, including software applications, frameworks, and programming languages that are responsible for implementing various aspects of the program.

In terms of its composition, the tech stack is comprised of two essential components – the front-end or client-side and the server-side or back-end.

Web applications resemble websites that can be accessed through browsers, allowing users to utilize them without the need for downloading them onto their devices. The technology stack for web applications leverages system resources, necessitating the consideration of a combination of front-end and back-end technologies to develop a web product.

In contrast, developers construct native apps designed for a specific platform or environment, where their code and data cannot be utilized elsewhere. To access these applications, users must download them from the app marketplace.

Therefore, when constructing a native app, it is important to consider the use of platform-oriented technologies and tools, such as Swift and Objective-C for iOS and Java or Kotlin for Android app development.

Let us delve further into the tech stacks required for both web and mobile app development processes.

Tech stack for a web software

The back-end technology stack is responsible for ensuring the smooth operation of the internal workings of an application or website. It is particularly crucial if the site features anything other than simple, static HTML-coded pages. The tools that developers use for the back-end stack include various programming languages such as Python, PHP, and JavaScript, frameworks like Ruby on Rails, Flask, Django, Swift, or Objective-C, databases such as MongoDB and MySQL, and server providers like Apache, Nginx, and others.

In contrast, the front-end technology stack determines the user’s experience when they interact with an application or website. Thus, the primary focus of the front-end stack is to provide an accessible user interface, a convenient user experience, and clear internal structures. The appropriate technology stack for the front-end or client-side of web software consists of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

HTML is responsible for organizing and placing data on the page, serving as the backbone of the front-end stack. CSS is responsible for presenting the data, including features such as colors, fonts, background, and layout peculiarities. If interactive features are required, developers can choose JavaScript, which can be controlled via libraries such as jQuery, React.js, or Zepto.js, integrated into frameworks like Ember, Backbone, or Angular.

The tech stack for an iOS application

When developing an application for Apple devices, it is essential to find a team with expertise in Objective-C and Swift, the primary programming languages used in the iOS software development process. Additionally, developers may consider utilizing integrated development environments like JetBrains AppCode and Apple’s Xcode. Let’s examine the iOS technology stack in greater detail.

Objective-C is an established open-source framework that utilizes pointer concepts similar to C and C++ programming tools. It has been widely tested and is reliable, with numerous third-party frameworks available.

Swift, on the other hand, is a newer framework released in 2014 and is commonly used for iOS product development. Swift’s advantages include faster coding, better memory management, code reusability, and simpler debugging when compared to Objective-C. For instance, our team recently used Swift to develop Nioxin, a product for hairstylists. To learn more about this project, please follow the link.

Xcode is a powerful open-source development environment that integrates with the Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks. It includes numerous developer tools for building apps using Objective-C. The Xcode software package comprises a text editor, compiler, and build system, enabling iOS developers to write, compile, debug, and submit their apps directly to the Apple app store.

Another iOS app code editor for Swift, Objective-C, C, and C++ is AppCode. Similar to Xcode, it offers faster coding, improved file navigation, editor customization, and other advantages.

The tech stack for an Android application

Java is an object-oriented programming language that is widely used for Android projects and is particularly popular among prominent companies such as Google and Yahoo. When developing an Android app, developers can use the Android SDK, which provides a plethora of libraries for data structure, graphics, mathematics, and networking to facilitate the creation of their application.

Kotlin is another programming language that has gained widespread popularity among Android app developers. It is commonly used for developing server-side applications, and one of its primary advantages is its ability to reduce the amount of necessary code. This feature is particularly useful in situations such as findViewByIds, one of the most frequently executed operations in Android development.

Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for developing Android projects. Android Studio provides developers with a variety of features, including code writing and debugging capabilities, to enhance their productivity and make the development process more efficient.

Important considerations about the technology stack in 2023

Scalability is a crucial aspect of software development, and the tech stack serves as its foundation. Although tweaks can be made according to operating results, the tech stack must have the necessary elements to support scalability.

There are two types of scalability: vertical, which involves adding more elements and data to an application, and horizontal, which involves the ability to run on more devices. Both types are equally important to make a product effective and successful.

Performance plays a critical role in software development and comes from two sources: business requirements and the technology’s capabilities. Operating characteristics and requirements depend on how fast the system can react and how many requests it can process at what rate.

Maintaining strict operating characteristics requirements is vital when choosing the tech stack since the entire operation must react to thousands of events at millisecond speed. Therefore, picking the most reliable option is essential.

Budgeting for the tech stack is one of the most challenging aspects of software creation. It demands significant financial resources, including hosting costs for product data, developers’ salaries, technology education and licensing fees, and subsequent maintenance costs. The trick is to manage to balance things out, avoid bloating, and overspending for the tech stack wherever possible.

Things to consider when hiring an app development company

Various types of applications require different tools and technologies. Web development projects, for example, involve a range of backend and frontend technologies and tools, whereas iOS and Android projects typically use a single coding language.

When seeking development services, it is not always necessary for you or your company to participate in the selection of technologies and tools. However, factors such as agility, operating characteristics, and costs are crucial to the success of your project. Therefore, do not hesitate to ask your developers about the technologies they plan to use to validate your business idea. They will provide you with a clear understanding of the pros and cons of the selected tech solutions.


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